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Flora and Vegetation 

The meadows are dominated by grasses and typical species include meadow sage, knapweed and yarrow, but various orchid species are also common (the bee orchid, late spider orchid, somber bee orchid, green-winged orchid and fragrant orchid).

Fields and abandoned farmland have been gradually colonized by wild blackberry, old man’s beard and a group of typical pioneer shrubs (juniper, dog-rose, broom, common dogwood, blackthorn, common hawthorn, elm and field maple). These species appear initially as isolated specimens but, over time, they tend to form mixed, often intertwined shrubs that not only provide shelter and food for a large number of animals but also create the conditions for the return of the forest.

In fact, young trees of pubescent oak, manna ash, field maple and other species grow under the shade of the shrubs, slowly transforming these shrub lands into forests, with specific characteristics depending on the mountain slope’s exposure.

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